TOEIC Day 5 – Grammar 2
- Subject – verb
Subject-verb agreement is another grammar rule that is regularly tested. in a sentence, the form of verb depends on the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is either is, was, or verb with s/es. If the subject is plural or ‘you’, the verb is either are, were, or verb without s/es
There are 12 tenses in English. It’s the structure of a sentence that signifies action in time aspect. Fortunately, there are only five tenses that are mostly used. You can start with them. They are Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Future Simple, and Present Perfect. The website below is where you can learn how to form a sentence in each tense and how to use the tenses properly.
Check this out : http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/verb-tenses.html
- Passive voice
Sometimes it doesn’t matter who or what performs the action in a sentence. Take a look at these sentences.
Active : The robbers broke into the bank and killed six people last night.
This sentence focuses on what ‘the robbers’ did. What if I want to focuses on the robbery and how many people were killed.
Passive : The bank was robbed last night. Six people were killed. The robbers’ identity remains unknown.
Usually you can switch a sentence from active voice to passive voice, and vice versa. But sometimes you just can’t change a passive voice into an active voice because you don’t know who performs the action. Like these ones.
The chocolate roll was filled with raspberry jam.
All the tasks were assigned to the members.
The system was hacked and destroyed.
- Present subjunctive
Present subjunctive form is used to emphasize urgency and importance. To put it in easier way, it’s the verb in infinitive form acting as secondary verb. (Infinitive form of ‘to learn’ is ‘learn’) An infinitive verb is needed after these verbs.
And these expressions
Example: It is important that he go to school tomorrow.
‘Go’ is subjunctive verb. In regular sentence, -es must be added at the end of go because the subject is third person singular.
More examples, explanation, and exercises can be found here.
Check this out : http://www.englishpage.com/minitutorials/subjunctive.html
- Gerunds and infinitives
A gerund is verb with -ing that doesn’t come after verb to be in continuous tenses. It follows a specific list of verbs such as enjoy, fancy, discuss, dislike, finish, mind, suggest, recommend, keep, avoid. It also comes after a preposition and acts as a subject of a sentence.
I enjoyed going out with you.
After arriving at the hotel, I went straight to the room.
Dancing is my favorite thing to do.
Infinitive verb has two forms; with to and without to. The infinitive with to comes after certain verbs, adjectives, and is used for showing purpose. The infinitive without to comes after modal verbs and certain verbs. Please go to this website for full explanation on both subjects.
Check this out : http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/gerunds-and-infinitives.html
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