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Express way to IELTS in 20 days# 3 – Grammar (Agreements, Comparison, Modifiers 1)

By chulatutor   on 01/06/15
Express way to IELTS in 20 days# 3 – Grammar (Agreements, Comparison, Modifiers 1)

Express way to IELTS in 20 days# 3 – Grammar (Agreements, Comparison, Modifiers 1)

Agreements

There are three kinds of agreements in English that you need to understand; subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, and number agreement. Take your time to review this topic because it will strengthen up your grammar foundation.

 

Subject-Verb agreement

In any sentence, the verbs must conform to the subject of the sentence. So, it is important to clearly identify the subject and the verbs. There are 10 important rules in Subject-Verb agreement, which are fully explained in this webpage.

Check this out : http://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/subjectVerbAgree.asp

An example of these rules is Rule 3. The verb in an or, either/or, or neither/nor sentence agrees with the noun or pronoun closest to it.

Example ielts exam :
Neither the government nor NGO agencies is giving enough help. (incorrect)
Neither the government nor NGO agencies are giving enough help. (correct)

The verb to be must conform to the noun closest to it, which is ‘NGO agencies’.

 

Pronoun agreement

A pronoun is a representative of a noun. Therefore, make sure that the pronoun correctly represents the noun and does not create any ambiguities.

Example :
The Prime Minster is giving his thoughts on the problem.
The board members announced that they approve the idea.

 

Number agreement

The concept of singularity and plurality of a noun is very important in English.

Example :
I have applied to three master program. (incorrect)
I have applied to three master programs. (correct)

 

Comparison

You can use either adjectives or adverbs to make a comparison. There are mainly three forms of comparison in English.

1. Comparison with er/est

positivecomparativesuperlative
adjectiveslargelargerlargest
toughtoughertoughest
adverbsearlyearlierearliest
fastfasterfastest

 

2. Comparison with more/most

positivecomparativesuperlative
adjectivesfantasticmore fantasticmost fantastic
comfortablemore comfortablemost comfortable
adverbsexceptionallymore exceptionallymost exceptionally
amazinglymore amazinglymost amazingly

 

3. Irregular adjectives and adverbs change into different words

positivecomparativesuperlative
adjectivesbadworseworst
manymoremost
adverbsbadlyworseworst
farfartherfarthest

There are also special adjectives which you can change them into er/est or more/most form such as simple – simpler / more simple – simplest / most simplest. Moreover, in some case, how you change a word into a comparison form may lead to difference in meaning. For full details, follow these links.

 

Check this out :
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/adjektive_steig.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/adverb_steig.htm

 

Express way to IELTS in 20 days# 3 – Grammar (Agreements, Comparison, Modifiers 1)Modifiers

Another topic that should be taken seriously is modifier because using the modifiers help complete the sentence with conciseness. These may come in form of adjectives, adverbs, or modifying phrases. Being able to identify the modifiers allows you to clearly see the structure of any sentence, hence, better comprehension.

 

Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. They are usually placed directly before the modified noun (or pronoun) and after verb to be.

Example : Additionally, a young archaeologist has recently found extremely significant evidence regarding the lives during Ancient Egypt.

 

In this sentence, young modifies archeologist and significant modifies evidence.

 

Meanwhile, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and another adverb. They are usually placed next to the modified verb and before the modified adjective. In case they are used to emphasize, they may be placed at the beginning of a sentence, the end of a sentence, or in the middle of a sentence.

 

Example : Additionally, a young archaeologist has recently found extremely significant evidence regarding the lives during Ancient Egypt.

 

In this sentence, additionally simply modifies the whole clause. Recently modifies the verb ‘found’ and extremely modifies the adjective ‘significant’.

 

Also, there are modifiers that come in the form of a phrase or a clause. We will discuss this type of modifier in the next article.